Characteristics & Emergence of Leadership, Functions of A Leader In Group Work

Characteristics & Emergence of Leadership, Functions of A Leader In Group Work


WHAT IS LEADERSHIP?
Leadership is an important element of the directing function of management. Wherever, there is an organized group of people working towards a common goal, some type of leadership becomes essential. “The power of leadership is the power of integrating. The leader stimulates what is best in us he unites and concentrates what we feel only gropingly and shatteringly. He is a person who gives form to the uncoarctate energy in every man. The person who influences me most is not he who does great Deeds, but he who makes me feel that I can do great deeds.” Marry Parker Follet.

Leadership is the ability to build up confidence and zeal among people and to create an urge in them to be led. To be a successful leader, a manager must possess the qualities of foresight, drive, initiative, self-confidence and personal integrity. Different situations may demand different types of leadership.

Leadership in this context does not mean taking centre stage – it is about creating the right environment for others to act. It is less directing and controlling, more stimulating, enabling and empowering.
Leadership is the capacity to work creatively, constructively, and effectively with individuals, families, groups, organizations, and communities to promote social justice, catalyze social change, and address individual and social problems. Leaders accomplish this by inspiring vision, offering direction, and supporting individual and collective action in order to obtain mutually valued results

A simple definition is that leadership is the art of motivating a group of people to act towards achieving a common goal.Leadership is a process by which an executive can direct, guide and influence the behavior and work of others towards accomplishment of specific goals in a given situation. Leadership is the ability of a manager to induce the subordinates to work with confidence and zeal.



Leadership is the potential to influence behaviour of others. It is also defined as the capacity to influence a group towards the realization of a goal. Leaders are required to develop future visions, and to motivate the organizational members to want to achieve the visions.
According to Keith Davis, “Leadership is the ability to persuade others to seek defined objectives enthusiastically. It is the human factor which binds a group together and motivates it towards goals.”

Leadership is both a research area and a practical skill encompassing the ability of an individual or organization to "lead" or guide other individuals, teams, or entire organizations. US academic environments define leadership as "a process of social influence in which a person can enlist the aid and support of others in the accomplishment of a common task"

Leadership is that process in which one person sets the purpose or direction for one or more other persons and gets them to move along together with him or her and with each other in that direction with competence and full commitment. (Jaques & Clement, 1994: 4)
Leadership is an interaction between two or more members of a group that often involves a structuring or restructuring of the situation and the perceptions and expectations of members…Leadership occurs when one group member modifies the motivation or competencies of others in the group. Any member of the group can exhibit some amount of leadership… (Bass, 1990: 19-20)
Leadership is the process of influencing the activities of an individual or a group in efforts toward goal achievement in a given situation. (Hersey & Blanchard, 1988: 86)
Leadership is interpersonal influence, exercised in a situation, and directed, through the communication process, toward the attainment of a specified goal or goals. (Tannenbaum, Weschler & Massarik, 1961: 24)
Leadership involves:
1.       Establishing a clear vision,
2.       Sharing that vision with others so that they will follow willingly,
3.       Providing the information, knowledge and methods to realize that vision, and coordinating and balancing the conflicting interests of all members and stakeholders.
A leader steps up in times of crisis, and is able to think and act creatively in difficult situations.
CHARACTERISTICS OF LEADERSHIP
1. Leadership is a personal quality.
2. It exists only with followers. If there are no followers, there is no leadership?
3. It is the willingness of people to follow that makes person a leader.
4. Leadership is a process of influence. A leader must be able to influence the behaviour, attitude and beliefs of his subordinates.
5. It exists only for the realization of common goals.
6. It involves readiness to accept complete responsibility in all situations.
7. Leadership is the function of stimulating the followers to strive willingly to attain organizational objectives.
8. Leadership styles do change under different circumstances.
9. Leadership is neither bossism nor synonymous with; management.




EMERGENCE OF LEADERSH
1.              Personal Traits
2.              Accidental Leadership
3.              Situational Leadership
4.              Specific Skills
5.              Tradition based
6.              Conditioned Needs

POWER BASES OF LEADERS
1.           Connection Power
2.           Expert Power
3.           Information Power
4.           Legitimate Power
5.           References Power
6.           Reward Power
7.           Co-ercive Power





FUNCTIONS OF A LEADER IN GROUP WORK
1.           Attributor (Conflict Mitigator)
2.           Compromiser
3.           Co-ordinator
4.           Education (formal, non-formal)
5.           Facilitator
6.           Motivation
7.           Democratic Decision Making
8.           Guidance & Control
9.           Organizing the Group
10.       Policy Maker
11.       Programme Planing
12.       Representation of the agency
13.       Supervisor
14.       Empowerment

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