Maladjustment and Maladaptation

Maladjustment and Maladaptation

 

'Maladjustment' is a process whereby an individual cannot satisfy his personal needs biological, psychological, or social needs successfully and establishes an imbalance between and expectation of the society resulting in the disturbance of psycho-equilibrium.

 The terms maladjustment and maladaptive are used in a wide range of contexts, broadly categorized as social, psychological, and biological. Social maladjustment refers to how a person develops and maintains interpersonal relationships, especially with peers. Maladaptive behaviors in this realm often emerge during childhood when individuals learn how to navigate their social world and solve interpersonal problems. During this period, children face changing school settings and social networks. Children who cannot successfully adjust to these new environments may exhibit a range of maladaptive behaviors, such as aggression or rough play, leading to peer rejection (Ladd & Price, 1987).

When applied to the psychological domain, the terms maladjustment and maladaptive may also refer to how well somebody can regulate their emotions. Emotions typically serve adaptive purposes in how individuals interact with the environment. Thus, psychological maladjustment may be characterized by high levels of "emotional inertia" (Kuppens, Allen, & Sheeber, 2010), or the inability to respond appropriately to the dynamically changing demands of a given situation. Finally, maladjustment and maladaptive processes can also pertain to how individuals physiologically react and adapt to environmental needs. The human body attempts to respond optimally to the continually changing environment, a concept that has been termed allostasis (McEwen & Stellar, 1993). Critical systems involved in this process are the autonomic nervous system, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, and the immune and cardiovascular systems. Repeated activation of these systems exerts wear and tear on the body, termed allostatic load. When quantified using objective health parameters, high levels of allostatic load have been associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease and lower physical and cognitive functioning (Seeman, Singer, Rowe, Horwitz, & McEwen, 1997).

Causes of Maladjustment

         Unhealthy home environment – Include separated family, divorced family, step-parent, drunkard or drug-addicted parents, single parenting, low moral and social standard of the family.

         Heredity causes – One may feel inferior because of inherited defective mental setup, physiological structure, skin color (dark), leading to maladjustment.

         Poverty – When poor children meet rich children in school, they sometimes develop jealousy, worry, and inferiority complex, which lead to emotional disturbance.

         Environment causes – The environmental forces begin to play their role from the conception of the child in the mother's womb in the form of defective nourishment available to him. Uncongenial physical environment, adverse physical environment leads to maladjustment.

         Faulty method of teaching – Faulty method of teaching does not motivate students. The Lesson becomes dull and drudgery. Students begin to hate every process of education. It creates emotional tension, which leads to mental illness.

         Strict Discipline – Some traditional schools impose strict discipline; such schools are just like jails and the teacher's jailors. Those students are always suffering from fear and worry

         Lack of equipment (facility)- There is a lack of furniture and proper equipment in some schools. Overcrowded classes and inadequate facilities lead to frustration and mental tension.

         Lack of guidance and counseling – Mastery over content and subject matter only without caring for students' interest causes maladjustment. No advice is provided for various areas at different levels. Students became confused, frustrated, and become maladjusted.

         Lack of recreational facilities – Children who do not get facilities after class in the forms of play, library, debates, discussion, puzzles, etc., may have adjustment problems.

         Mass media – Children are exposed to mass media, the explosion of knowledge, adult issues nowadays. If the child witnesses films which depict low sexuality and violence, it may lead to maladjustment.

         Social laws and bindings – Social rules and legally binding are the most common source of frustrations in one's life. Similarly, restrictions imposed by parents, teachers, ethical, and other groups are familiar sources of maladjustment.

         Bad company/neighborhood – Neighbourhood is an essential conditioner of a child's behavior. Many of our youngsters develop delinquencies because such behavior patterns are seen in their neighborhood patterns like lying, stealing, obscene talk, and promiscuous sex interest.

  Problems of a Maladjusted Person

         Anxiety is a personality trait. It results from conflict, which is an inevitable part of life. Anxiety describes the individual's level of emotionality. We see many tense and worried (highly anxious) and calm (hardly nervous). Since stress is an inferred emotional state of an individual, it cannot be directly observed. It can be measured through psychological tests/techniques.

         Psychological texts define withdrawal as the onset of symptoms, both physical and mental, when a substance is reduced or not given to the body. The meanings we are talking about could be any chemical, but you tend to deal with some psychology drugs when discussing withdrawal in psychology. This includes both prescription and illegal drugs as they both affect the body 

         Aggression is overt, often harmful, social interaction to inflict damage or other unpleasantness upon another individual. It may occur either in retaliation or without provocation. In humans, frustration due to blocked goals can cause aggression. Human aggression can be classified into the direct and indirect attack; while the first is characterized by physical or verbal behavior intended to cause harm to someone, the second one is characterized by conduct intended to harm the social relations of an individual or a group

         Juvenile delinquency, also known as "juvenile offending," participates in minors' illegal behavior (juveniles, i.e., individuals younger than the statutory age of majority). Most legal systems prescribe specific procedures for dealing with juveniles, such as juvenile detention centers and courts.

         Drug addiction, also called substance use disorder, is a disease that affects a person's brain and behavior and leads to an inability to control the use of a legal or illegal drug or medication. Substances such as alcohol, marijuana, and nicotine also are considered pharmaceuticals. When you're addicted, you may continue using the medicine despite the harm it causes

         Low achievement is considered a multidimensional problem because so many factors reduce educational lower attainment, including psychological, educational, social, or medical reasons.

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