Concept of Social Security & Some SS programs in Bangladesh

Concept of Social Security & Some SS programs in Bangladesh

Concept of Social Security
-Social Security is  a program in which the government provides money to people who are unable to work because they are old, disabled, or unemployed
q  According to Wikipedia- “Social Security may refer to the action programs of government intended to promote the welfare of the population through assistance measures guaranteeing access to sufficient resources for food and shelter and to promote health and well-being for the population at large and potentially vulnerable segments such as children, the elderly, the sick and the unemployed”.
q  According to Professor M.A. Ghafur- “ by social security we understand – a programme of  protection provided by society against those contingencies of modern life- sickness, unemployment, old age dependency, industrial accidents and ………..against which the individual cannot be expected……………………………………………………………………”
q  The online free dictionary defined social security as a government program that provides economic assistance to persons faced with   unemployment, disability, or agedness, financed by assessment of employers and employees.

q  According to International Labor Organizations- Social security is the protection that a society provides to individuals and households to ensure access to health care and to Guarantee income security, particularly in cases of old age, unemployment, sickness, invalidity, work injury, maternity or loss of a  breadwinner.
q  Thomsopson has said- “SS has been defined as the protection given by the  society to its members or various categories of them, through a series of public measures from the economic distress that other wise would be caused by the stoppage or substantial reduction  of earnings resulting from sickness, maternity, unemployment, injury, invalidity, old age, and death; for providing medical care to these groups in the populations and also for subsidizing families containing a numbers of children”.

Key Statistics
¢  Only one in five people in the world has adequate social security coverage.
¢  More than half the world’s population lacks any type of social security protection.
¢  In sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia, only an estimated 5% to 10% of the working population has some social security coverage.
¢  In middle-income countries, social security coverage generally ranges from 20% to 60% of the population.
¢  In most industrialized countries, coverage is close to 100%, although increasing informalisation of work results in lower levels of coverage, especially in countries in economic transition.
¢  Europe is the region with the highest level of social security expenditure at nearly 25% of GDP, followed by North America at 16.6%. Africa has the lowest level at 4.3% of GDP.
¢  The HIV/AIDS pandemic threatens the financial viability of social security systems in many developing countries.
¢  Lack of social security coverage is largely concentrated in the informal economies of the developing world, which are generally a larger source of employment for women than for men. Impact of Social Security The ILO and Social Security

Some SS programs in Bangladesh
Maternity Benefit,  Medical Benefit, Workmen Compensation, Pension, Gratuity, Provident Fund, Old age allowance, Widow allowance, freedom fighter allowance, relief , day care centre, Juvenile development centre etc..

Types of Social Security
Commonly there have three types of SS programs, which are as follows;
1. Social Insurance
q  According to  of Encyclopedia Britannica Social insurance,  public insurance program that provides protection against various economic risks (e.g., loss of income due to sickness, old age, or unemployment) and in which participation is compulsory. Social insurance is considered to be a type of social security, and in fact the two terms are sometimes used interchangeably.
q  According to ILO- “ SS is a scheme of providing benefits for persons of small earnings granted as of right in amounts that combine and contribute efforts of the insured with subsidies from the employer and the state”.
¢  According to Wikipedia- “Social insurance is any government -sponsored program with the following four characteristics:
¢  the benefits, eligibility requirements and other aspects of the program are defined by statute;
¢  explicit provision is made to account for the income and expenses (often through a trust fund);
¢  it is funded by taxes or premiums paid by (or on behalf of) participants (although additional sources of funding may be provided as well); and
¢  the program serves a defined population, and participation is either compulsory or the program is subsidized heavily enough that most eligible individuals choose to participate.
SS in Bangladesh
ü   Provident Fund , Pension, Group Insurance, Gratuity, Benevolent Fund etc.

2. Social Assistance
q  According to Friedlander – “ it may be provided by payments based upon economic and social  needs of the applicants which are determined by a means test, or they may be granted as a flat rate of allowance legally fixed with guard to recognized average needs of families of a specific size”
q  social assistance - benefits paid to bring incomes up to minimum levels established by law
Social assistance can be divided into two sides – a) General Assistance, b) Special assistance
Some Social Assistance in BD
ü  Relief in flood or any natural disaster affected area, Rehabilitation program in disaster prone area etc.

3. Social Service
q  According to Professor Dr. Abdul Hakim Sarker- “ the programmes that are not included in social insurance and assistance but necessary for the well-being of society is called social service”.
q  According to Wikipedia- “Social services are a range of public services provided by governmental or private organizations. These public services aims to create more effective organizations, build stronger communities, and promote equity and opportunity. Social services include the benefits and facilities such as education, food subsidies, health care, job training and subsidized housing, adoption, community management, policy research, and lobbying. Not all public services are social services.
Some Social Service in BD
Old age allowance, widow allowance, freedom fighter allowance,  after care service, day care centre, hospital social service etc.

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