Functions of NGOs and Areas Of NGOs in Bangladesh

Functions of NGOs and Areas Of NGOs in Bangladesh

Functional Coverage of NGOs:
In Bangladesh, about 20,000 NGOs are operating their functions in different development fields. The NGO supported programs are mainly targeted to poor and the disadvantaged groups that cover a wide range of activities. Here is given a brief discussion about the programs undertaken by different NGOs in our country.
1.Credit: To reduce dependency on the usual moneylenders,NGOs arrange collateral-free credit for individual or collective enterprises which is the most successful innovative efforts of development NGOs.The model pioneered by Grameen Bank(GB) has established micro-credit as the most widely replicated anti-poverty program and by1995,cumulative disbursement by GB reached US$ 1.44billion(World Bank,1996)
2.Women Development: In order to develop the socio-economic condition of the women,NGOs provide special training to them on apiculture,silk production,embroidery,fishnet making,poultry and livestock rearing etc. to make them skilled.
3.Non-formal Education: NGOs have concentrated their efforts on eradicating illiteracy through providing non-formal education for both men and women and they also take specific programs for the drop-out students and provide non-formal primary education to the target children where the majority are girls.
4.Employment generation and Income earning: NGOs expand the opportubnity of employment generation through small trading, rickshaw pulling,mulberry plantation for women, social forestry,fish culture, weaving,poultry& livestock rearing.
5.Capacity building in Planning and Management: In order to enhance the organizing skills and managerial capabilities of the poor,NGOS undertake different activities at the grassroots level.
6.Occupational Skill training: NGOs arrange traditional and new skills training for men and women,including crop cultivation,silk cocoon rearing,operation of irrigation equipment,paramachines,etc.

7.Political participation: NGOs influence to restructure the existing power relations through the empowerment of the rural poor through a continuous process of education,awareness building and resource mobilization to ensure them to take part in “Salish”,local election etc.
8.Health and Nutritional Knowledge: NGOS have directed their efforts towards reducing the incidence of infant, child and maternal mortality through various programs and also provde nutritional knowledge.
9.Family Planning& Development of Children: Family planning is considered as an integral part of health service and most of the NGOs are involved in motivational activities and distribution of contraceptives at the community levels.Some programs taken for underprivileged children include proving health care services,rehabilitation of orphan children,establishment of child rights etc.
10.Environment: NGOs undertake different programs to combat deforestation and have also exhibited notable success in afforestation programs,improving sanitation facilities and ensuring supply of safe drinking water through distribution of water-sealed latrines and tube-wells among the beneficiaries.
11.Mobilization of target group & Consciousness Raising: NGOS mobilize the target groups through village survey,individual contacts, group meetings,motivational work participatory group discussion etc and mass awareness is created through a trainer.
12.Leadership Development: Cadres are trained at training centres on leadership within the group.
13.Access to govt. services & Activate Local Administration: In order to give the poor access to the ‘khas’ land,health care facilities of the govt.,the NGOs make such demands to the relevant governmental authorities. The NGOs can also activate the local administration by giving the poor adequate access to it.
14.Development of appropriate irrigation technologies: With a view to responding to the needs of the small and marginal farmers and also to promote crop diversification, NGOs developed low-cost irrigation technologies through research and experiment. For example, Rangpur Dinajpur Rural Services(RDRS) developed the treadle pump and bamboo tube-well etc. There are currently more than 130,000 such technologies in operation in the country.(Ministry of Agriculture:1995)
15. Urban &Rural Development: For urban and rural development, the NGOs expand their activities through infrastructure development, slum development, low-cost housing, FWP, construction of roads, bridges etc.
16. Humanitarian & Legal Aid: Different NGOs provide humanitarian and legal aid to the distressed people by making them aware of different human and legal rights and also by providing necessary legal assistance.
17. Relief & Rehabilitation: From a long time, different NGOs have been playing a significant role in distributing relief among the distressed people along with govt. These are the major programs taken by different NGOs in Bangladesh. Besides these, there are different types of functions to be taken.

Areas Of NGOs in Bangladesh :
Functionally, some voluntary organisations undertake one or a few schemes covering fields such as agriculturelivestock, small rural industries, irrigation, forestry, and health. Others combine a few of these. Several organisations take up schemes on social activities such as primary health, sanitation, food, water supply, nutrition, adult and elementary education, vocational training, and family welfare. A few organisations try to mobilise public cooperation in environmental improvement-air, water, flora and fauna. There seems to be an increasing realisation among voluntary organisations that sectoral approach has only limited impact upon the wellbeing of the target groups or on development of an area. A suitably designed multisectoral strategy, in which each sectoral activity is meshed with others of allied objective, tends to optimise the impact on people and areas.

Voluntary organisations may be identified specially by their clientele i.e., the socio-economic classes and sub-classes of people for which they work. While some voluntary organisations may be concerned with development needs of all or most classes of people, others have orientation towards specific classes only.
Over the last three decades, NGO activities have been concentrated in a number of areas of intervention. Keeping in view their long-term objectives and visions these areas may be identified as:
a) establishment of effective democratic process at the grassroots;
b) poverty alleviation;
c) women's rights;
d) education;
e) health and sanitation;
f) family planning, and
g) environment.
The ‘distribution and involvement of NGOs in Bangladesh cut across all sectors and virtually all areas of intervention with development agenda. These NG0s are known all over the world for their innovations. To mention a few of them, these innovations are the successful models in micro-credit, non-formal education and primary health care developed mainly by grameen bank, BRAC, and ASA. These NGOs are also constantly exploring new frontiers by venturing into new areas of activities and social life, experimenting with new interventions and spearheading ideas.

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