Types and Theories of Social Race(Race)

Types and Theories of Social Race(Race)

There are two prominent theories relating to origin of Race. These are ..
1.       Theory of Monogenism
2.       Theory of Polygenism

Monogenism

Monogenism or sometimes monogenesis is the theory of human origins which posits a common descent for all human races. The negation of monogenism is polygenism. This issue was hotly debated in the Western world in the nineteenth century, as the assumptions of scientific racism came under scrutiny both from religious groups and in the light of developments in the life sciences and human science. It was integral to early conceptions of ethnology.
Modern scientific views favor this theory, with the most widely accepted model for human origins being the "Out of Africa" theory.
Monogenetic Theories (single-origin theories)
Monogenetic theories assume monogenesis, hence the name. It is argued that there is a single origin of European-based pidgins and creoles.





Monogenesis and Relexification
Monogenetic approaches explain the structural similarities between most or all European-based pidgins (and creoles) with a common origin. According to monogenetic theories, all pidgins have a common origin, the proto-pidgin. Thus, pidgins are genetically related and descent from a common ancestor.

A fifteenth century Portuguese-based pidgin in West Africa (WAPP) has been established as the proto-pidgin. It functions similar to a late version of the medieval Mediterranean Lingua Franca called Sabir.

According to the theory of monogenesis, WAPP (West African Pidgin Portuguese) was carried around the world in the course of European colonization and, as a consequence, gave rise to pidgins (and later creoles) in many places. These pidgins and creoles all retained particular structural features including lexical remnants of the Portuguese-based proto-pidgin.

An important component of the monogenesis theory is relexification. Relexification explains the lexical differences between pidgins and creoles, as they are historically related and derive from a common origin in WAPP. The term 'relexification' means the total or near-total replacement of the vocabulary of a particular language by vocabulary from another language.

Thus, if relexification is assumed, when WAPP was carried around the world and its speakers came into contact with different groups of European colonizers – English, Spanish, Dutch and French - it was adopted by these colonizers by a process of relexification. Thus, WAPP was relexified and influenced by the particular European colonizer’s language with which it was in contact. It gave rise to different European-based pidgins and creoles over time.
While the lexicon changed and Portuguese words were replaced by words from other European colonizers' languages, the basic grammatical structure of WAPP was retained. According to the monogenesis theory, this is the reason for the structural similarities between pidgins and creoles which have different lexifier languages.

Disadvantage of the Monogenesis Theory

The theory of monogenesis does not consider the development of all pidgins and creoles worldwide. It only focuses on European-based pidgins and creoles that originated from WAPP. However, there are pidgins and creoles which developed without European connections (e.g. several African or Asian pidgins). These contact languages also show basic structural similarities.

Consequently, although monogenesis assumes relexification, and although this may be an appropriate explanation for all European-based pidgins and creoles, it cannot account for the structural similarities between pidgins and creoles worldwide.
A more general theory of genesis, thus, should cover all cases of pidginization. Such a theory then must be a polygenetic one which assumes multiple independent origins for the contact languages of the world.

Factors affecting in Monogenesis Theory

1.     Influence of Geographical Factors
2.     Influence of Natural and social isolation
3.     Influence of Cross-breeding
4.     Influence of Mutation
5.     Influence of Natural Selection
6.     Influence of Socio-Economic Factors



Polygenesis

Polygenesis refers to the idea that human beings originate not from a single common origin, but from several separately originating lines of descent. It exists in two forms, creationist and evolutionist, although it is not a popular view among either school of thought. The opposite position is known as monogenesis.

Creationist polygenesis claims that God did not create just a single first couple, Adam and Eve, from whom all humanity is descended, but rather many first couples. This however contradicts many verses in the Bible which say all humanity is descended from Adam and Eve.

One form of this theory is pre-Adamism: God created other human beings prior to Adam and Eve. The usual interpretation is that the creation of humans in Genesis 1 and Genesis 2 are two different accounts of the same event; by contrast, the Pre-Adamite interpretation is that Genesis 1 refers to a separate earlier creation of human beings, prior to Adam's creation in Genesis 2.
Another form of this theory is co-Adamism: God created other human beings at the same time as Adam and Eve, rather than prior to them.

Variations of this theory were popular among ancient Pagan thinkers, especially when the need came to respond to the Christian account of creation. It has also been favoured by a number of 20th century occult writers.

Pre-Adamism and co-Adamism have the advantage that they avoid the need for incestuous pairings in the first generation after Adam and Eve; on the other hand, they contradict many parts of the Bible. They also have often been interpreted in a racist manner - e.g., claiming that only a certain race or races (especially Caucasian) were descended from Adam and Eve, and the rest belong to another inferior creation. Since Romans 5 argues that Christ came as saviour to do right what Adam had been done wrong, this view then implies that Jesus only came to save Adam and Eve's descendants, and thus other races cannot be saved. But, although pre-Adamism and co-Adamism have often been used to justify racism, it is possible to give these views a non-racist interpretation.

And according to modern polygenesis theory the main four races come from different ancestors such as :
1.       Negro Race comes from Rhodesian man
2.       Caucasoid  Race from Cro-magnon
3.       Mongoloid Race  from Peking man
4.      Astraloid Race from Java man



Evolutionist polygenesis

Evolutionary theory is inherently polygenetic, in the sense that it sees the evolution of one species out of another usually taking place within a defined population rather than a single pair of individuals. But the term polygenesis has been used to refer to the idea that humans evolved separately from several separate ancestor species, rather than out of one single ancestor species - for example, different human races might have evolved out of several separate species of apes, rather than a single species of apes. That view is rejected by modern evolutionary theory, although in the past it has had its advocates. Likewise, this view has been used to try to justify racial supremacism, but at the same time it can be adopted in non-racist forms.


Linguistic Monogenesis vs. Polygenesis

In linguistics, monogenesis vs. polygenesis concerns whether there was a single original language, spoken by all humankind; or if there were multiple original languages, spoken by different subsets of humanity. In evolutionary terms, this is the argument about whether language evolved once, or on multiple separate occasions. It is a separate question from the evolution of the underlying species. In creationist terms, it is believed that Adam spoke an original language, which later developed in different directions - greatly helped along by divine intervention at BabelOn the other hand, a polygenist creationist may believe that each of the separate creations of original humans corresponded to a separate original language.

In Jewish thought, the traditional belief is that the language of Adam was Hebrew - although that differs from the views of contemporary linguistics, which sees Hebrew evolving out of a Proto-Afro-Asiatic language which was also the common ancestor of other languages such as ArabicAramaicancient EgyptianCopticAkkadian, and the various Ethiopic languages. Others have suggested the Adamic language was different from Hebrew, and was some other language now lost - Joseph Smith, the founder of Mormonism, claimed to have been given some knowledge of this language by divine revelation.

Linguistic polygenesis would contradict controversial hypothesises that claim that all the world's major language families originate from one common original language, such as Nostratic. However, most linguists who criticise these theories do so, not from any commitment to lingustic polygenism, but simply on the basis that there is a lack of evidence to support them - even if all human languages descend from a common origin, critics of these hypothesises believe that knowledge of it has been lost to the mysts of time, and cannot be reconstructed.

Post a Comment

Previous Post Next Post