Meaning, Types, Levels and Sources of Conflict

Meaning, Types, Levels and Sources of Conflict


WHAT IS CONFLICT?

q Psychologists define conflict to be a state of opposition, disagreement or incapability between two or more people or groups of people, which is sometimes characterized by physical violence.
q According to Erik Erikson's theory of psychosocial development, a conflict is a turning point during which an individual struggles to attain some psychological quality. Sometimes referred to as a psychosocial crisis, this can be a time of both vulnerability and strength, as the individual works toward success or failure.
Conflicts mostly refer to the existence of the clash, which can be interests, values, actions or directions. Psychologically, a conflict appears when one motivating stimulus reduces and another increases, so that a new adjustment is demanded.


TYPES OF CONFLICT
q Approach-approach Conflict: occurs when you must choose between two desirable outcomes.
q Avoidance-avoidance Conflict: occurs when you must choose between two unattractive outcomes.
q  Approach-avoidance: exists when ONE event or goal has both attractive and unattractive features.
q Multiple Approach-avoidance Conflicts: here you must choose between two or more things, each of which has both desirable and undesirable features.

LEVELS OF CONFLICT
q Interpersonal Conflict- occurs when two people have incompatible needs, goals, or approaches in their relationship.
q Role Conflict- involves very real differences in role definitions, expectations or responsibilities between individuals who are interdependent in a social system.
q Intergroup Conflict- occurs between collections of people such as ethnic or racial groups, departments or levels of decision making in the same organization, and union and management.
q  Multi-party Conflict- occurs in societies when different interest groups and organizations have varying priorities over resource management and policy development.
q  International Conflict- occurs between states at the global level

SOURCES OF CONFLICT
q Social Dilemmas:  Several of the problems that most threaten our human future arise as various parties pursue their self-interests, ironically, to their collective detriment.
q  Competition:  In Muzafer Sherif’s experiment (1996), win-lose competition had produced intense conflict, negative images of the outgroup, and strong ingroup cohesiveness and pride.
q  Perceived Injustice : “That’s unfair!” “What a rip-off!” “We deserve better!” Such comments typify conflicts bred by perceived injustice
q  Misperception:  Seeds of Misperception _ Self-serving bias; In-group bias; Fundamental attribution error; Polarize; Self-justify ; Stereotype; Preconceptions; Groupthink; Polarize

CONFLICT MECHANISM MODEL

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