Distinct Features of Constitution of the Republic of Bangladesh

Distinct Features of Constitution of the Republic of Bangladesh

 Constitution of Bangladesh

Constitution of Bangladesh was officially adopted on 4th November, 1972 by constitution assembly and implemented on 16 December of the same year, marking the Victory Day. It has 153 articles, 1 preamble & 4 schedules. It is the supreme law of Bangladesh. It has been amended 16 times so far. Every citizen of Bangladesh must abide by the rules written in this constitution. The constitution of the peoples Republic of Bangladesh is written document and inflexible. Based on Bangladesh constitution, Bangladeshi Parliament is one chambered. According to this, Bangladesh judiciary is separated from the executive.

 Major Features of Bangladeshi Constitution

1.     Fundamental Principle of State Policy:  Article 8 of Bangladesh constitution described the fundamental principle of state policy which is Nationalism, Democracy, Socialism and Secularism. 

2.     Unicameral Legislature:  According to Article 65 of Bangladesh constitution, legislative assembly is unicameral. That means there is only one house parliament which is 'House of the nation' commonly known as 'Jatiya Sangshad'. 

3.     Written Document: The constitution is a written document and is divided into 11 parts, which are further subdivided into 153 articles. In addition, there are 7 schedules.

4.     Rigid Constitution: Constitution of Bangladesh is inflexible. It cannot be amended without votes of two-third members in the total members of parliament. 

5.     Preamble: This is the opening statement that sets out the guiding purpose and principles of the the constitution. The preamble is not an indispensable part of the constitution in the sense that it is enforceable in a court of law. 

6.     Unitary Government: Bangladeshi government is unitary according to the constitution's Article 1. Unitary governance means all power centralized under the constitution. 

7.     Fundamental Right: Third part of Bangladesh constitution described about fundamental rights of the peoples of Bangladesh. These are likely Laws inconsistent with fundamental rights to be void, Equality before law, Right to protection of law, Prohibition of forced labor, Freedom of movement, Freedom of assembly etc. 

8.     Independence of the Judiciary: Judicial independence is the theory that the judiciary system should be kept away from the other department of government. In Bangladesh, Chief justice is selected by the president of the republic and other justice of supreme court appointed after consultation with the chief justice. A justice cannot be removed from his office except by an order of the President passed to a resolution of parliament supported by a two-third members of the legislature. 

9.     Parliamentary form of government:  Bangladeshi Parliament is a Westminster type of parliament according to the constitution. Here, the government is run by cabinet lead by the prime minister. The president is head of the government but executive power is exercised by the cabinet of ministers. 

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