HIV/AIDS – Global and Bangladesh Perspectives & Consequences

HIV/AIDS – Global and Bangladesh Perspectives & Consequences

The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a lentivirus (a subgroup of retrovirus) that causes HIV infection and over time acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). AIDS is a condition in humans in which progressive failure of the immune system allows life-threatening opportunistic infections and cancers to thrive. Without treatment, average survival time after infection with HIV is estimated to be 9 to 11 years, depending on the HIV subtype.

Way of Transmission: There are generally three ways of HIV/AIDS transmission such as:

  1. Sexual Transmission — it can happen when there is contact with infected sexual fluids (rectal, genital, or oral mucous membranes). This can happen while having sex without a condom, including vaginal, oral, and anal sex, or sharing sex toys with someone who is HIV-positive.
  1. Perinatal Transmission — a mother can transmit HIV to her child during childbirth, pregnancy, and also through breastfeeding.
  1. Blood Transmission — the risk of transmitting HIV through blood transfusion is extremely low in developed countries, thanks to meticulous screening and precautions. However, among people who      inject drugs, sharing and reusing syringes contaminated with HIV-infected blood is extremely hazardous.
1. Aids-Related Deaths: The annual number of global deaths from AIDS-related illness among people living with HIV (all ages) has declined from a peak of 1.9 million [1.4–2.7 million] in 2004 to 940 000 [670 000–1 300 000] in 2017. Since 2010, AIDS-related mortality has declined by 34%. Reaching the 2020 milestone will require further declines of nearly 150 000 deaths per year.
  1. Promiscuity: Promiscuity is now the leading cause of the spread of HIV in the developing regions. Many people are having more than one sexual partner, and also prostitution is common in the regions (Hilary Heuler, VOA).
  1. Cultural Factors: The most common cultural factors fueling the spread of HIV/AIDS in the developing world include polygamy and wife inheritance. These cultural practices are specifically common in Africa (Susser I., Stein Z.).
  1. Immigration and Movement of People: First, HIV/AIDS was introduced in most of these developing regions by people from other countries (i.e., the developed ones). And even today, there is a big number of new infections that are caused by immigrants.
  1. Commercialization of sex: A prominent aspect of South African culture that undoubtedly contributes to the HIV/Aids epidemic is that sexuality is frequently seen as a resource that can be used to gain economic benefits.
  1. Gender inequality and male dominance Society: Men are socialised to believe that women are inferior and should be under their control; women are socialised to over-respect men and act submissively towards them. The resulting unequal power relation between the sexes, particularly when negotiating sexual encounters, increases women’s vulnerability to HIV infection and accelerates the epidemic.
  1. Ignorance & Illiteracy: Most people living in these regions are fully aware of the disease, but they continue to get involved in practices that fuel its transmission. This is ignorance, and it is adversely driving the HIV/AIDS epidemic in the whole world, not just the developing countries (Kelly M. J., Bain, B.).
  1. Poverty: The developing world has a large population of people living in poverty. Most poor people are forced to do anything to earn a living, including engaging in sexual activities which are a high-risk factor for the disease.
  1. Drug and Alcohol Use: Drug and alcohol use is quite common among the youth in the developing regions. According to studies, there have been consistent new HIV infections resulting from sharing of injectors among the drug users in these regions (Liu H., Grusky O., Li X., Ma E.).
  1. HIV/AIDS Stigma and Discrimination: The stigma attached to HIV seriously hinders prevention efforts, and makes HIV-positive people wary to seek care and support for fear of discrimination.
  1. Physical and sexual violence: Men often use violence in an attempt to maintain their status in society and prove that they are “real men” by keeping women under their control. Physically abusive relationships limit women’s ability to negotiate safer sex: many men still do not want to use condoms, and some become violent if women insist on safer sex. Women may not even raise the issue of safer sex for fear of a violent response.
  1. Lack of Access to Maternity Services: The developing countries lack enough maternity services for all their pregnant women. Most women, especially those in remote areas, bear children without the help of trained healthcare providers (Grant A. D., Yousaf M.Z.).
  1. Fallen of life expectancy at birth
  1. The loss of the income and household production of the family member, in particular if he/she is the breadwinner & the increase in household expenditures to cover the medical costs
  1. Reduction in the number of available worker
  1. Absenteeism and deaths of health workers pose a serious threat to the health system
  1. Facing a shortage of teachers as the pool of qualified educator
  1. Reduce the labour supply, leading to reduced productivity.

How To reduce The risk of getting HIV?
  1. Anyone can get HIV, but you can take steps to protect yourself from HIV infection.
  1. Get Tested And Know Your Partner’s HIV Status
  1. Have Less Risky Sex Use Condom
  1. Limit Your Number of Sexual Partner
  1. Get Tested And Treated For STD
  1. Talk To Your Health Care Provider About Pre-exposure Prophylaxis (Prep)
  1. Don’t Inject Drugs
  1. Follow The Religious Values
  1. Increasing Moral Education
  1. Reducing Poverty And Developing Socio-economic Condition of People
  1. Increasing Female Health Education
  1. IEM Intervention To Use Condoms
  1. Using the Behavior Change Communication (BCC) And Information, Education, & Communication (IEC) Programs
  1. Awareness-raising Activities
  1. Uganda’s ABC Model On HIV Control:  ( A) Abstinence (B) ‘Be-faithful’ (C), Condoms

Who are HIV/AIDS vulnerable groups?
People Who Injects Drugs (PWIDs); Men Who Have Sex With Men (MSM); Commercial Sex Workers (CSWs); Female Sex Workers (FSWs); Men Sex Workers (MSWs); Transgender Sex Workers (TSWs); Transgender People

State of the epidemic of HIV/AIDS: According to the UNAIDS_Data_2018HIV/AIDS related status is given in the following:

2. New HIV Infections: The number of new HIV infections globally continued to decline in 2017. Modelled estimates show that new infections (all ages) declined from a peak of 3.4 million [2.6–4.4 million] in 1996 to 1.8 million [1.4–2.4 million] in 2017. However, progress is far slower than what is required to reach the 2020 milestone of less than 500 000 new infections.
3. Key Populations: Available data—including special surveys of key populations using respondent-driven sampling methods—suggest that 47% of new HIV infections globally in 2017 were among key populations and their sexual partners. This percentage varies by region. Key populations and their sexual partners accounted for more than 95% of new HIV infections in eastern Europe and central Asia and the Middle East and North Africa, 90% of new infections in western and central Europe and North America, 77% in Latin American and 84% in Asia and the Pacific and the Caribbean. In western and central Africa, 40% of new HIV infections are among key populations and their sexual partners.

Factors affecting causing and spreading HIV/AIDS

The HIV/AIDS Epidemic and Its Social and Economic Implications

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