Meaning of Plagiarism

Meaning of Plagiarism

Plagiarism is a common (and often misunderstood) problem that is often the result of a lack of knowledge and skills. Plagiarism is the "wrongful appropriation" and "stealing and publication" of another author's "language, thoughts, ideas, or expressions" and the representation of them as one's own original work.

Plagiarism is considered academic dishonesty and a breach of journalistic ethics. It is subject to sanctions such as penalties, suspension, and even expulsion from school or work. Recently, cases of "extreme plagiarism" have been identified in academia. The modern concept of plagiarism as immoral and originality as an ideal emerged in Europe in the 18th century, particularly with the Romantic movement.

Plagiarism is not in itself a crime, but can constitute copyright infringement. In academia and industry, it is a serious ethical offense. Plagiarism and copyright infringement overlap to a considerable extent, but they are not equivalent concepts, and many types of plagiarism do not constitute copyright infringement, which is defined by copyright law and may be adjudicated by courts. Plagiarism is not defined or punished by law, but rather by institutions (including professional associations, educational institutions, and commercial entities, such as publishing companies).

According to Oxford University Website, Plagiarism is presenting someone else’s work or ideas as your own, with or without their consent, by incorporating it into your work without full acknowledgement. All published and unpublished material, whether in manuscript, printed or electronic form, is covered under this definition. Plagiarism may be intentional or reckless, or unintentional. Under the regulations for examinations, intentional or reckless plagiarism is a disciplinary offence.

According to the Merriam-Webster online dictionary, to "plagiarize" means:
§  to steal and pass off (the ideas or words of another) as one's own
§  to use (another's production) without crediting the source
§  to commit literary theft
§  to present as new and original an idea or product derived from an existing source
In other words, plagiarism is an act of fraud. It involves both stealing someone else's work and lying about it afterward.

Moreover Plagiarism refers:
§  turning in someone else's work as your own
§   copying words or ideas from someone else without giving credit
§  failing to put a quotation in quotation marks
§  giving incorrect information about the source of a quotation
§  changing words but copying the sentence structure of a source without giving credit
§  copying so many words or ideas from a source that it makes up the majority of your work, whether you give credit or not (see our section on "fair use" rules)
Most cases of plagiarism can be avoided, however, by citing sources. Simply acknowledging that certain material has been borrowed and providing your audience with the information necessary to find that source is usually enough to prevent plagiarism.

According to Bela Gipp academic plagiarism encompasses: "The use of ideas, concepts, words, or structures without appropriately acknowledging the source to benefit in a setting where originality is expected.” The definition by B. Gipp is an abridged version of Teddi Fishman's definition of plagiarism, which proposed five elements characteristic of plagiarism.

According to T. Fishman, plagiarism occurs when someone:
§  Uses words, ideas, or work products
§  Attributable to another identifiable person or source
§  Without attributing the work to the source from which it was obtained
§  In a situation in which there is a legitimate expectation of original authorship
§  In order to obtain some benefit, credit, or gain which need not be monetary

Furthermore, plagiarism is defined differently among institutions of higher learning and universities:
§  Stanford sees plagiarism as the "use, without giving reasonable and appropriate credit to or acknowledging the author or source, of another person's original work, whether such work is made up of code, formulas, ideas, language, research, strategies, writing or other form."
§  Yale views plagiarism as the "... use of another's work, words, or ideas without attribution," which includes "... using a source's language without quoting, using information from a source without attribution, and paraphrasing a source in a form that stays too close to the original."
§  Princeton perceives plagiarism as the "deliberate" use of "someone else's language, ideas, or other original (not common-knowledge) material without acknowledging its source."
§  Oxford College of Emory University characterizes plagiarism as the use of "a writer's ideas or phraseology without giving due credit."
§  Brown defines plagiarism as "... appropriating another person's ideas or words (spoken or written) without attributing those word or ideas to their true source."
§  The U.S. Naval Academy defines plagiarism as "the use of the words, information, insights, or ideas of another without crediting that person through proper citation."

Further Readings

Md. Mohinuddin

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